Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to give you an idea of whether you’re underweight, overweight or an ideal weight for your height. It’s useful to know because if your weight increases or decreases outside of the ideal range, your health risks may increase.
Blood Sugar Test
Blood sugar (glucose) test is a blood test that screens for diabetes by measuring the level of glucose (sugar) in a person’s blood. It can be an important tool in managing your treatment plan and preventing long-term complications of diabetes like cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.
Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia. It measures red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets along with average red blood cell size (MCV), hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH) and amount of hemoglobin relative to the size of the cell (hemoglobin concentration) per red blood cell (MCHC).
ESR Blood Test
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) is a blood test that measures inflammation or abnormal proteins in the body. While ESR is not an indication of any one disease, it commonly increases with any condition that causes inflammation, such as infection, arthritis or cancer.
Urine test checks different components and properties of urine. It provides information to assist in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of a wide range of diseases. It can determine whether or not a woman is ovulating or pregnant. Urine can also be tested for a variety of substances relating to drug abuse.
Cholesterol test is a blood test carried out to measure the levels of total cholesterol found in various lipids (LDL-bad cholesterol, HDL-good cholesterol, VLDL) in the blood. Evaluation of total cholesterol in conjunction with triglycerides is carried out in order to determine a person’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease (heart disease or stroke).
HbA1c test is the gold-standard measurement of chronic glycemia and gives a picture of your average blood glucose (blood sugar) control over a period of 3 months. It shows how well you are controlling your diabetes.
SGPT (Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase) test also known as Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) test is measured to see if the liver is damaged or diseased due to cirrhosis or hepatitis caused by alcohol, drugs or viruses.
Cortisol test is done to measure the level of the hormone cortisol in the blood. It is done to find problems of the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, such as making too much or too little hormones.
Vitamin D deficiency treatment
The amount of vitamin D that is needed to correct a deficiency will depend on the severity of the deficiency. When the blood level is below 30 ng/ml, a minimum of 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 will be needed for children and 1,500 to 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for adults. Another rule of thumb is for every 1 ng/ml increase in your blood level you need an additional 100 IU/vitamin D per day. A task force for the Endocrine Society reviewed the research and made the following recommendations:
- For children 1-18 years of age who are vitamin D deficient, we suggest treatment with 2,000 IU/d of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 for at least six weeks or with 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 once a week for at least six weeks to achieve a blood level of 25(OH)D above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 600-1,000 IU/day.
- We suggest that all adults who are vitamin D deficient be treated with 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 once a week for eight weeks or its equivalent of 6,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 daily to achieve a blood level of 25(OH)D above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 1,500-2,000 IU/day.
- In obese patients, patients with malabsorption syndromes, and patients on medications affecting vitamin D metabolism, we suggest a higher dose (two to three times higher; at least 6,000-10,000 IU/day) of vitamin D to treat vitamin D deficiency to maintain a 25(OH)D level above 30 ng/ml, followed by maintenance therapy of 3,000-6,000IU/day.
For optimal absorption, you want to take your supplement with the meal that contains the most fat. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and requires fat for absorption. A recent study instructed people to take their supplement with their largest meal (typically the one with the most fat) and in three months, their blood levels went up an average of 56.7%.
A natural electrical system causes the heart muscle to contract and pump blood through the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body. Electrocardiography (ECG) is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart.
The electrical activity of the heart can be detected through the skin by small metal discs called electrodes. During electrocardiography, the electrodes are attached to the skin on the chest, arms and legs. The electrodes are also connected to a machine that translates the electrical activity into line tracings on paper. These tracings are often analyzed by the machine and then carefully reviewed by a doctor for abnormalities.
An electrocardiogram may show:
- Evidence of heart enlargement.
- Signs of insufficient blood flow to the heart.
- Signs of a new or previous injury to the heart (heart attack).
- Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).
- Changes in the electrical activity of the heart caused by a chemical (electrolyte) imbalance in the body.
Electrocardiography (ECG) is usually done by a technician and the resulting ECG is interpreted by a doctor who specializes in heart problems (Cardiologist) or a general physician.
Stress Echocardiography or Tread Mill Test helps to evaluate how the heart responds to the demands of physical activity and can detect some early changes, which may not be seen in the resting ECG.
Stress Echocardiography / TMT are done:
- To evaluate unexplained but stable chest pain and determine its cause when Coronary Artery diseases is suspected.
- To determine the severity of heart disease and the ability of the heart to tolerate exercise in people with known heart disease or those who have had a heart attack or heart surgery.
- On the basis of this information, a cardiac rehabilitation program, including appropriate exercise as well as a plan for low-risk daily physical activities can be developed.
- To identify abnormal heart rhythms when symptoms such as dizziness, fainting or palpitations occur during exercise or activity.
- To screen for CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) in a person without symptoms, especially if the person has risk factors for CAD.
- After angioplasty, to see if arteries have renarrowed, especially if chest pain or other symptoms have returned.
To evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or other therapy for irregular heartbeats or chest pain.
The chest X-ray is the most common type of X-ray test. Routinely taken from the back to the front, it can reveal certain abnormalities, which cannot be detected during physical examination. It provides a picture of organs and structures within the chest, including the heart and lungs, the blood vessels associated with them and the thin sheet of muscle just below the lungs.
- A chest X-ray can help detect problems with these structures and with the bones inside the chest, such as the ribs, clavicle (collarbone) and upper part of the spine.
- A chest X-ray is taken by a radiology technologist (radiographer). The X-ray pictures are usually interpreted by a doctor who specializes in evaluating X-ray (radiologist).
Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) / Lung Function Tests
Lung function tests evaluate how much air the lungs can hold, how quickly can a person move air in and out of the lungs and how well lungs add oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.